Application of superhard cutting tools in cold machining

25 August 2021

Cutting tools are necessary in the working of cold machine. Using high-quality cutting tools can not only ensure the quality of mechanical products, but also improve the efficiency of mechanical products. Superhard material is a new kind of mechanical material, which can not only make up for the lack of bending resistance of traditional tool materials, but also solve the difficult problem of inserting and welding card, so as to improve the quality of mechanical cold working. In recent years, with the improvement of the production process of artificial superhard materials, the application of superhard materials has increase a lot, in finishing, semi-finishing, rough machining have been applied. It has been proved that the life of superhard tools are very high and the machining process is greatly shortened.



1. Turning

Turning processing refers to the lathe, the use of the tool of the straight line or curve movement, the blank product molding, size of the cutting, so as to produce a mechanical product in line with the design drawings. This is one of the most common methods in the production of mechanical products, and its application is based on cutting tools. In the turning process, the tool material needs to have enough hardness, wear resistance, heat resistance, toughness. The hardness and wear resistance of tool materials such as alloy steel, tool steel, carbon steel and high speed steel are far inferior to superhard materials. Practice has proved that the cutting depth of superhard material tool is much higher than the grinding height, and the machining efficiency is very high.


2. Milling

Milling is a process in which the blank is fixed and then cut with the aid of a milling cutter. In this way, complex mechanical products can be processed on CNC lathes. Such as grinding tools, models, etc. In milling, not like turning, the cutter rotates at high speed. This means that even at high temperatures, it can maintain good cutting performance, wear resistance and not easily damaged. In this regard, superhard materials can be selected to be processed into cutting tools. If PCD is used to make tools, the processing speed is fast, the processing time is shortened and the processing efficiency is improved.


3. Boring

Boring is a kind of inside cutting technology, it can be used in rough machining, finish machining. Generally in the practical application, mainly the application of non-standard tools for boring processing. In addition, boring processing can also be divided into rough boring processing, half fine boring processing, fine boring processing. According to the relevant research, if using HSS boring ordinary steel, the maximum speed can only reach 50m/min. If the carbide tool is used for rough boring, the highest machining speed can reach 60m/min, and the highest machining speed can reach 150m/min for fine boring. But for ultra-high precision machining, only superhard materials can be used. Nowadays, diamond, cubic boron nitride and other superhard materials have been used in the machining of boring tools. The application of superhard material in the boring process can not only effectively improve the precision of mechanical products, but also improve the smoothness of mechanical products.


4. Reaming

Reaming mainly uses the reamer to cut the thin layer of metal which has finished the machining hole wall, so as to obtain the mechanical products with low surface roughness and precise aperture. For example, can be processed round holes, taper holes and other mechanical products with holes. Generally, the machining aperture range of the reaming is very small, the maximum is only 100 mm. This means that the cutter accuracy of the reamer must be high. And in the process of reaming, the workpiece being processed is fixed. In addition, the hinge can also be divided into rough reaming, fine reaming. The maximum depth of cut is 0.8 mm for coarse reaming and 0.3 mm for fine reaming. Hard alloy can be used in rough reaming, and in fine reaming, only superhard materials can be selected. Because of the high precision of the superhard tool, the cutting depth can also meet the design requirements. In particular, superhard materials have long service life and can withstand long time vibration. Nowadays, there have been diamond reamer, CBN reamer. The diamond reamer can be used for alkali metal, glass, ceramics and other processing, CBN reamer can be used for quenching steel, stainless steel, hot pressing tools, alloys and other processing. In short, the application of superhard materials in the reaming processing, can effectively solve some of the high hardness of the deep hole, taper hole product processing problems.

5. Broaching

Broaching refers to the use of broach, the workpiece from top to bottom to cut, in order to get a thinner metal layer, and make the product to meet the requirements of precision design. Generally, broaching is done in one go. It should be noted that in the broaching of titanium alloy, superalloy and other metal materials, hard alloy tools must be used. In addition, if the use of superhard material reamer, can be combined with broaching processing requirements. For example, for the workpiece hole processing, can use a compound involute jump tooth inner hole hard material tool. The cutter tooth structure is reasonable, and the jumping tooth arrangement can ensure the processing efficiency, especially can reduce the processing difficulty.

6. Drilling

Drilling processing is a kind of hole processing, mainly in the drilling press, lathe processing. The machining process has some disadvantages: no cooling environment, drilling processing generated more heat energy, will affect the cutting speed, and the process is rough machining, which cannot be applied in the processing of high-precision holes. Therefore, the use of superhard materials of the tool to greatly improve the situation, improve the processing efficiency. For example, diamond bits can be used in stone, ceramic and other processing. In addition, PCD bit is often used in glass, mirror hole processing. It can be said that this material can not only withstand the effects of high temperature, but also ensure the drilling efficiency.

In conclusion, superhard tool materials have obvious application advantages. In mechanical cold working, superhard can be used to process a variety of tools, so as to improve the processing efficiency and processing quality of mechanical products

TAG:    superhard cutting tools cutting tools cold machining
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