The choice of tool material has great influence on tool life, processing efficiency, processing quality and processing cost. Cutting tools to withstand high pressure, high temperature, friction, impact and vibration and so on. Therefore, tool materials should have the following basic properties:
(1) Hardness and wear resistance. The hardness of the tool material must be higher than that of the workpiece material, generally above 60HRC. The higher the hardness of the tool material, the better the wear resistance.
(2) Strength and toughness. The tool material should have high strength and toughness in order to withstand cutting forces, impact and vibration, to prevent brittle fracture and collapse of the tool.
(3) Heat resistance. The tool material has good heat resistance, can withstand high cutting temperatures, and has good oxidation resistance.
(4) Process performance and economy. The tool material should have good forging property, heat treatment property and weldability; Grinding performance, and the pursuit of high performance-to-price ratio.
Types of cutting tools
PCD (poly crystal diamond) /Diamond, an isomer of carbon, is one of the hardest materials ever found in nature. Diamond tools with high hardness, high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity are widely used in the processing of non-ferrous and non-metallic materials. Especially in high speed cutting of aluminum and silicon aluminum alloy, diamond tools are the main cutting tools that are difficult to replace. The diamond tool which can realize high efficiency, high stability and long service life is an indispensable tool in modern CNC machining.
Another superhard material, CBN (cubic boron nitride), synthesized in a similar way to diamond manufacturing, is second only to diamond in hardness and thermal conductivity, and has excellent thermal stability. Oxidation does not occur even when heated to 10000C in the atmosphere. CBN has very stable chemical properties for ferrous metals and can be widely used in the processing of iron and steel products.
3. Ceramic cutting tool
Ceramic tools are characterized by high hardness, good wear resistance, heat resistance and chemical stability, and are not easy to bond with metals. Ceramic tool plays a very important role in CNC machining. Ceramic tool has become one of the main tools for high speed cutting and machining difficult materials. Ceramic tools are widely used in high speed cutting, dry cutting, hard cutting and machining of difficult materials. Ceramic cutting tools can efficiently process high hardness materials that traditional cutting tools cannot process at all, realizing "grinding instead of turning"; The optimal cutting speed of ceramic tool can be 2 ~ l0 times higher than that of carbide tool, thus greatly improving the production efficiency of cutting. The main raw materials used in ceramic tool materials are the most abundant elements in the earth's crust. Therefore, the popularization and application of ceramic tool is of great significance to improve productivity, reduce processing costs and save strategic precious metals, and will greatly promote the progress of cutting technology.
4. Coated cutting tool
Coating the tool is one of the important ways to improve the tool performance. The appearance of coated tool has made a great breakthrough in cutting performance. Coated tool is coated with a layer or multiple layers of refractory compound with good wear resistance on the tool body with good toughness. It combines the tool matrix with the hard coating, so that the tool performance is greatly improved. Coated tools can improve machining efficiency, improve machining accuracy, prolong tool life and reduce machining cost.
About 80% of the cutting tools used in the new CNC machine tools are coated tools. Coating tool will be the most important tool in CNC machining field in the future.
5. Carbide tool material
Carbide cutting tools, especially indexable carbide cutting tools, is the dominant production of CNC machining tool, since the 1980 s, a variety of monolithic and indexable carbide cutting tools, or the variety of the blade has been extended to the field of all kinds of cutting tool, with indexable carbide cutting tools by a simple tool, face milling cutter to expand to the field of precision, complex, forming tools.
6. High speed steel cutting tool
High Speed Steel (HSS) is a kind of High alloy tool Steel with many alloying elements such as W, Mo, Cr and V. High speed steel tools in strength, toughness and manufacturability and other aspects have excellent comprehensive performance, in the complex tools, especially manufacturing hole machining tools, milling tools, thread tools, broach, cutting tools, such as some complex edge tools, high speed steel still occupy the main position. High speed steel tools tend to give sharp cutting edges.
----EDITOR: Lexi Pang
---POST: Doris Hu