Several causes of tool wear
Abrasive wear: During cutting, chips and workpiece materials contain some hard spots such as carbides, nitrides, and oxides, as well as built-up edge debris, etc., which can scratch grooves on the surface of the tool, which is abrasive wear .
Adhesive wear: During cutting, there is a lot of pressure and strong friction between chips, workpieces, and the front and flank surfaces, and cold welding bonding occurs after surface contact is formed.
Adhesive wear occurs due to the shear failure of the chip during the sliding process, which takes away the tool material.
Diffusion wear: At high cutting temperatures, the tool wear caused by the mutual diffusion and replacement of the alloy elements in the workpiece and the tool material in a solid state is called diffusion wear.
Chemical wear: At a certain temperature, the tool material reacts chemically with some surrounding media to form a layer of the compound with a lower hardness on the surface of the tool, which is wiped off by chips or workpieces to form wear and become chemical wear .
Phase change wears: When the cutting temperature reaches or exceeds the phase change temperature of the tool material, the metallographic structure in the tool material will change, and the hardness will drop significantly, and the resulting tool wear is called phase change wear.